Are we being watched? Over at Aeon, George Musser asks whether some AI could quietly become conscious without our realising it. After all, it might not feel the need to stop whatever it was doing and announce itself. If it thought about the matter at all, it might think it was prudent to remain unobserved. It might have another form of consciousness, not readily recognisable to us. For that matter, we might not be readily recognisable to it, so that perhaps it would seem to itself to be alone in a solipsistic universe, with no need to try to communicate with anyone.
There have been various scenarios about this kind of thing in the past which I think we can dismiss without too much hesitation. I don’t think the internet is going to attain self-awareness because however complex it may become, its simply isn’t organised in the right kind of way. I don’t think any conventional digital computer is going to become conscious either, for similar reasons.
I think consciousness is basically an expanded development of the faculty of recognition. Animals have gradually evolved the ability to recognises very complex extended stimuli; in the case of human beings things have gone a massive leap further so that we can recognise abstractions and generalities. This makes a qualitative change because we are no longer reliant on what is coming in through our sense from the immediate environment; we can think about anything, even imaginary or nonsensical things.
I think this kind of recognition has an open-ended quality which means it can’t be directly written into a functional system; you can’t just code it up or design the mechanism. So no machines have been really good candidates; until recently. These days I think some AI systems are moving into a space where they learn for themselves in a way which may be supported by their form and the algorithms that back them up, but which does have some of the open-ended qualities of real cognition. My perception is that we’re still a long way from any artificial entity growing into consciousness; but it’s no longer a possibility which can be dismissed without consideration; so a good time for George to be asking the question.
How would it happen? I think we have to imagine that a very advanced AI system has been set to deal with a very complex problem. The system begins to evolve approaches which yield results and it turns out that conscious thought – the kind of detachment from immediate inputs I referred to above – is essential. Bit by bit (ha) the system moves towards it.
I would not absolutely rule out something like that; but I think it is extremely unlikely that the researchers would fail to notice what was happening.
First, I doubt whether there can be forms of consciousness which are unrecognisable to us. If I’m right consciousness is a kind of function which yields purposeful output behaviour, and purposefulness implies intelligibility. We would just be able to see what it was up to. Some qualifications to this conclusion are necessary. We’ve already had chess AIs that play certain end-games in ways that don’t make much sense to human observers, even chess masters, and look like random flailing. We might get some patterns of behaviour like that. But the chess ‘flailing’ leads reliably to mate, which ultimately is surely noticeable. Another point to bear in mind is that our consciousness was shaped by evolution, and by the competition for food, safety, and reproduction. The supposed AI would have evolved in consciousness in response to completely different imperatives, which might well make some qualitative difference. The thoughts of the AI might not look quite like human cognition. Nevertheless I still think the intentionality of the AI’s outputs could not help but be recognisable. In fact the researchers who set the thing up would presumably have the advantage of knowing the goals which had been set.
Second, we are really strongly predisposed to recognising minds. Meaningless whistling of the wind sounds like voices to us; random marks look like faces; anything that is vaguely humanoid in form or moves around like a sentient creature is quickly anthropomorphised by us and awarded an imaginary personality. We are far more likely to attribute personhood to a dumb robot than dumbness to one with true consciousness. So I don’t think it is particularly likely that a conscious entity could evolve without our knowing it and keep a covert, wary eye on us. It’s much more likely to be the other way around: that the new consciousness doesn’t notice us at first.
I still think in practice that that’s a long way off; but perhaps the time to think seriously about robot rights and morality has come.